As in previous projects such as FORRES 2020, OPTRES or PROGRESS the Green-X model was applied to perform a detailed quantitative assessment of the future deployment of renewable energies on country-, sector- as well as technology level. The core strength of this tool lies on the detailed RES resource and technology representation accompanied by a thorough energy policy description, which allows assessing various policy options with respect to resulting costs and benefits. A short characterization of the model is given below, whilst for a detailed description we refer to www.green-x.at.
The model Green-X has been developed by the Energy Economics Group (EEG) at the Vienna University of Technology under the EU research project “Green-X–Deriving optimal promotion strategies for increasing the share of RES-E in a dynamic European electricity market" (Contract No. ENG2-CT-2002-00607). Initially focussed on the electricity sector, this modelling tool, and its database on renewable energy (RES) potentials and costs, has been extended to incorporate renewable energy technologies within all energy sectors.
Green-X covers the EU-27, and can be extended to other countries, such as Turkey, Croatia and Norway. It allows the investigation of the future deployment of RES as well as the accompanying cost (including capital expenditures, additional generation cost of RES compared to conventional options, consumer expenditures due to applied supporting policies) and benefits (for instance, avoidance of fossil fuels and corresponding carbon emission savings). Results are calculated at both a country- and technology-level on a yearly basis. The time-horizon allows for in-depth assessments up to 2020, accompanied by concise outlooks for the period beyond 2020 (up to 2030).
The Green-X model develops nationally specific dynamic cost-resource curves for all key RES technologies, including for renewable electricity, biogas, biomass, biowaste, wind on- and offshore, hydropower large- and small-scale, solar thermal electricity, photovoltaic, tidal stream and wave power, geothermal electricity; for renewable heat, biomass, sub-divided into log wood, wood chips, pellets, grid-connected heat, geothermal grid-connected heat, heat pumps and solar thermal heat; and, for renewable transport fuels, first generation biofuels (biodiesel and bioethanol), second generation biofuels (lignocellulosic bioethanol, biomass to liquid), as well as the impact of biofuel imports. Besides the formal description of RES potentials and costs, Green-X provides a detailed representation of dynamic aspects such as technological learning and technology diffusion.
Through its in-depth energy policy representation, the Green-X model allows an assessment of the impact of applying (combinations of) different energy policy instruments (for instance, quota obligations based on tradable green certificates / guarantees of origin, (premium) feed-in tariffs, tax incentives, investment incentives, impact of emission trading on reference energy prices) at both country or European level in a dynamic framework. Sensitivity investigations on key input parameters such as non-economic barriers (influencing the technology diffusion), conventional energy prices, energy demand developments or technological progress (technological learning) typically complement a policy assessment.
Within the Green-X model, the allocation of biomass feedstock to feasible technologies and sectors is fully internalised into the overall calculation procedure. For each feedstock category, technology options (and their corresponding demands) are ranked based on the feasible revenue streams as available to a possible investor under the conditioned, scenario-specific energy policy framework that may change on a yearly basis. Recently, a module for intra-European trade of biomass feedstock has been added to Green-X that operates on the same principle as outlined above but at a European rather than at a purely national level. Thus, associated transport costs and GHG emissions reflect the outcomes of a detailed logistic model. Consequently, competition on biomass supply and demand arising within a country from the conditioned support incentives for heat and electricity as well as between countries can be reflected. In other words, the supporting framework at MS level may have a significant impact on the resulting biomass allocation and use as well as associated trade.
Moreover, Green-X was recently extended to allow an endogenous modelling of sustainability regulations for the energetic use of biomass. This comprises specifically the application of GHG constraints that exclude technology/feedstock combinations not complying with conditioned thresholds. The model allows flexibility in applying such limitations, that is to say, the user can select which technology clusters and feedstock categories are affected by the regulation both at national and EU level, and, additionally, applied parameters may change over time.
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